The completion of the last ice age, which was about 12 thousand years ago, created good conditions for the active development and settlement of the territory of Polotsk region. The oldest settlements of the Polotsk region are the Mesolithic sites near the villages of Krumplovo and Petrovtsi. There flint tools whose age is about 10 thousand years have been found.
In the Neolithic ceramic pottery appeared and new methods of stone processing were widely spread: sawing, grinding and drilling.
The Bronze and the Iron Ages were a time of resettlement and assimilation of the local population of Indo-Europeans. The main occupations of the locals were agriculture and animal breeding. The man has mastered the production and processing of copper, bronze and iron.
About 2,5 thousand years ago on the right cape of the Polota the Balts founded an ancient settlement, which became the first settlement within the boundaries of modern Polotsk.