At the beginning of the12thcentury the Polotsk land entered a period of feudal disunity. The first of its members were the districts of Minsk and Drutsky, in the second half of the century the centers of the principalities were Vitebsk, Izyaslavl, Lukoml, Borisov. In Polotsk the Veche (a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries) became the leading political force, and the princely power weakened. The Polotsk bishop took an active part in the life of the city: his seal attached important political agreements.
The territory of the city due to the active development of trade along the way “from the Varangians to the Greeks” has grown more than 10 times and has become about 120 hectares. According to various estimates, the population of Polotsk at that time fluctuated within 10-15 thousand people.
In the 12thcentury there were already more than ten stone churches in the town. The largest Christian complexes of Polotsk were the Monastery of St. Euphrosyne, Belchitsky Monastery and St. Sophia Cathedral built in the 11thcentury.